Monday, April 13, 2009

Nota ICT tingkatan 4

Topics: Introduction to Information and Communication Technology

1.1 Overview of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

1.1.1 Define ICT

1.1.2 Describe the brief evolution of computers

1.2 ICT in Everyday Life: Education, Banking, Industry and Commerce

1.2.1 List the usage of ICT in everyday life

1.2.2 State the differences between computerized and non-computerized systems

1.2.3 State the impact of ICT on society.


Communication has improved and evolved to facilitate our daily activities

In the 21 st century, everything related to communication utilities technology to `send out' or disseminate information to a wider audience.

Information can be `sent out' in many ways. The invention of cellular phones, television and other electronic devices are important in enhancing communication.


ICT is the technology required for information processing. In particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software application to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere and anytime.


Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research.

We need information to make decision and to predict the future. For example, scientist can detect the formation of a tsunami using the latest technology and warn the public to avoid disasters in the affected areas.

The tools to transmit information are the telephone, television and radio.

Information is knowledge and helps us to fulfil our daily tasks. For example, forecasting

the stock exchange market.


Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interaction.

Previously, people communicate through sign or symbols, performing drama and poetry. With the advent of technology, these `older' forms of communicate are less utilized as compared to the use of the Internet, email or video conferencing.

Communication is important in order to gain knowledge. With knowledge, we are more confident in expressing our thoughts and ideas.


Aiding Communication.

Telephone and fax machines are the devices used in extending communication. Spreading Information to broadcast information such as news or weather reports effectively. Radio, television, satellites and the World Wide Web (WWW) are powerful tools that can be used.


- 3500 BC, the Sumerians developed cuneiform writing

- 1500 BC, the Phoenicians developed the alphabet.

- 105 BC, Tsai Lun of China invented paper

- 1454, the first printing began with the creation of a printing machine.

- 1793, the telegraph line was invented.

- 1876, the first telephone was introduced.

- 1925, television was made known to public.

- 1941, the computer was created.

- 1958, the photocopier machine was introduced.

- 1963, the communication satellite was introduced

- 1969, the first internet known as ARPANET was introduced.



Computer are used in the sector of education because they can offer:

- Interactive experiences.

- Enhanced learning.

- Cognitive development.

In education:

1) Teachers

- Teachers use computers to research for teaching materials, participate in online forums and online conferences as well as to aid their teaching.

2) Students

- Students use the computers as reference tool. They use computers to browse the Internet to look for information.

3) Researchers

- Researchers use computers to collect and process data.

4) School Administrators

- School administrators use computers for administrative purposes to make sure that the entire operation runs smoothly.


The computer is the nerve centre of the banking system around the world. It functions to control the entire banking system that also includes `Electronic banking Services'.

In banking:

1) Customers can make any transactions at the 2 4 hour service centres or via online.

2) Businessmen can save their time by using the online services offered by banks. They can access company accounts for loan applications, business transactions and update on their cash flow at any time.

3) Bank administrators can oversee the entire banking activities such as reconciliations, inter-branch transactions (IBT), telegraphic transfer and others by referring to the banking system.


Computers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems, to support `chain management' and to help in product design in the industrial sector.

In Industry:

1) Workers - use machine that are connected to computers to operate. In some productions, robots are used to take over jobs that are dangerous to the workers.

2) Researchers - use computers to analyse and collect research data for future reference.

3) Administrators - use computers to oversee the entire operations in the plant or factory to detect specific errors or defects that occurred in the process.


E-commerce helps in boosting the economy. It makes buying and selling activities easier, more efficient and faster. For this application, computers, internet and shared software are needed.

In Commerce:

1) Customers use computers to be connected online with suppliers to purchase products. This method can save time and cost as they do not have to go to any outlets.

2) Suppliers use computers to keep track of their transactions. All products are bar coded and can be read by the computer scanner to help in determining prices and managing inventory.

3) Employees use computers and telephones to communicate with their customers for any enquiries. The system helps employees to get the latest updates on inventory to be informed to the customers.


1) Architecture

2) Arts

3) Career

4) Government

5) Healthcare

6) Home

7) Law Enforcement

8) Transportation

9) Travel.


With the Internet, news or messages are sent via e-mail to friends, business partners or to anyone efficiently.

With the capability of bandwidth, broadband and connection speed on the Internet, any information can travel fast and at an instant. It saves time and is inexpensive.


Using the Internet is cost effective. It allows people to have access to large amounts of a data at a very low cost.

With the Internet we do not have to pay for any basics services provided by the Internet. Furthermore, the cost of connection to the Internet is relatively cheap.


Computers are reliable. Information could be accessed and retrieved from anywhere and at anytime.

GIGO is a short form for Garbage In Garbage Out. It refers to the quality of output produced according to the Input.


With the advancement of ICT, information can be shared by people all around the world.

People can share and exchange opinions, news and information through discussion groups., mailing list and forums on the Internet.

Example of popular discussion groups on the Internet are:

- Google Groups ( leg

- Yahoo! Groups ( groups. com)


ICT technology has created the term paperless environment. This term means information can be stored and retrieved through the digital medium instead of paper.


Through the Internet, information and communication can be borderless.


There are some negative effects of ICT. It has created social problem in the society.

Nowadays, people tend to choose online communication rather than real time conversations.

People tend to become more individualistic and introvert.

Borderless information at times can be negative.


· A computer may harm users if they use it for long hours frequently.

· Computer users also exposed to bad posture, eyestrain, physical and mental stress

· In order to solve the health problem, an ergonomic environment can be introduced.


The 5 categories of computer users are:

1) Home users

2) Small office / home office (SOHO) users

3) Mobile users

4) Power users

5) Large business users


The computer is a basic necessity. Each home user spends time on computer for different reasons:

- business

- entertainment

- communication

- education


Small Office or Home Office users include:

- Accounting firms, travel agencies, florist and many more

These SOHO (Small Office House Office) users:

- Use desktop or notebook computers as well as telephone, hand phones and PDAs in completing their task and communicating.

- Work is a small company or work as an individual at home.


Include real estate agents, insurance agents and journalists.

Use notebook computers, Internet-enabled PDAs or smart phones.

Work with basic business software such as word processing and spreadsheet business software.

Use presentation graphics software to create and deliver presentations to a large audience by connecting a mobile computer or device to a video projector.

* * * mobile windows based devices can be divided into 3 categories which are :

- Windows Mobile-based Pocket PC

- Windows Mobile-based Pocket PC Phone

- Windows Mobile-based Smartphone.

A window Mobile based device can help people keep in touch with friends and organize daily task.


Power Users:

Include engineers, scientist, architects and virtual reality animators.

Use computers with extremely fast processor, bigger storage and customized software.

Work with mini computers that uses design to meet the organizational needs

Use software such as CAD, CAM and MATLAB


Large business users:

Bank, insurance company, hypermarket etc.

Use computers for basic business activities

Have e-commerce that allow customers, vendors and other interested parties can access

information on the web.

Have e-mail and web browsers to enable communications among employees, vendors

and customers.

Provide kiosk in public location.

1 comment:

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